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Emissivity

Emissivity table introductory comment
Understanding an object's emissivity, or its characteristic "radiance" is a critical component in the proper handling of infrared measurements. Concisely, emissivity is the ratio of radiation emitted by a surface or blackbody and its theoretical radiation predicted from Planck's law. [W(L,T)=C1/(L^5*(exp(C2/LT)-1)] A material's surface emissivity is measured by the amount of energy emitted when the surface is directly observed. There are many variables that affect a specific object's emissivity, such as the wavelength of interest, field of view, the geometric shape of the blackbody, and temperature. However, for the purposes and applications of the infrared thermometer user, a comprehensive table showing the emissivity at corresponding temperatures of various surfaces and objects is displayed. For more detailed and technical presentation of emissivity, please contact ZyTemp directly.

NonMetal

Material(Non-Metals) Temp degF(degC) Emissivity
Adobe 68 (20) 0.9
Asbestos
ˇˇ Board 100 (38) 0.96
ˇˇ Cement 32-392 (0-200) 0.96
ˇˇ Cement, Red 2500 (1371) 0.67
ˇˇ Cement, White 2500 (1371) 0.65
ˇˇ Cloth 199 (93) 0.9
ˇˇ Paper 100-700 (38-371) 0.93
ˇˇ Slate 68 (20) 0.97
ˇˇ Asphalt, pavement 100 (38) 0.93
ˇˇ Asphalt, tar paper 68 (20) 0.93
Basalt 68 (20) 0.72
Brick
ˇˇ Red, rough 70 (21) 0.93
ˇˇ Gault Cream 2500-5000 (1371-2760)  .26-.30
ˇˇ Fire Clay 2500 (1371) 0.75
ˇˇ Light Buff 1000 (538) 0.8
ˇˇ Lime Clay 2500 (1371) 0.43
ˇˇ Fire Brick 1832 (1000)  .75-.80
ˇˇ Magnesite, Refractory 1832 (1000) 0.38
ˇˇ Grey Brick 2012 (1100) 0.75
ˇˇ Silica, Glazed 2000 (1093) 0.88
ˇˇ Silica, Unglazed 2000 (1093) 0.8
ˇˇ Sandlime 2500-5000 (1371-2760) .59-.63
Carborundum 1850 (1010) 0.92
Ceramic
ˇˇ Alumina on Inconel 800-2000 (427-1093) .69-.45
ˇˇ Earthenware, Glazed 70 (21) 0.9
ˇˇ Earthenware, Matte 70 (21) 0.93
ˇˇ Greens No. 5210-2C  200-750 (93-399) .89-.82
ˇˇ Coating No. C20A  200-750 (93-399) .73-.67
ˇˇ Porcelain 72 (22) 0.92
ˇˇ White Al2O3 200 (93) 0.9
ˇˇ Zirconia on Inconel 800-2000 (427-1093) .62-.45
Clay 68 (20) 0.39
ˇˇ Fired 158 (70) 0.91
ˇˇ Shale  68 (20) 0.69
ˇˇ Tiles, Light Red  2500-5000 (1371-2760) .32-.34
ˇˇ Tiles, Red 2500-5000 (1371-2760) .40-.51
ˇˇ Tiles,Dark Purple 2500-5000 (1371-2760) 0.78
Concrete
ˇˇ Rough 32-2000 (0-1093) 0.94
ˇˇ Tiles, Natural 2500-5000 (1371-2760)  .63-.62
ˇˇ Brown 2500-5000 (1371-2760) .87-.83
ˇˇ Black 2500-5000 (1371-2760) .94-.91
Cotton Cloth 68 (20) 0.77
Dolomite Lime 68 (20) 0.41
Emery Corundum 176 (80) 0.86
Glass
ˇˇ Convex D 212 (100) 0.8
ˇˇ Convex D 600 (316) 0.8
ˇˇ Convex D 932 (500) 0.76
ˇˇ Nonex 212 (100) 0.82
ˇˇ Nonex 600 (316) 0.82
ˇˇ Nonex 932 (500) 0.78
ˇˇ Smooth 32-200(0-93) .92-.94
Granite 70 (21) 0.45
Gravel 100 (38) 0.28
Gypsum 68 (20) .80-.90
Ice, Smooth 32 (0) 0.97
Ice, Rough 32 (0) 0.98
Lacquer
ˇˇ Black 200 (93) 0.96
ˇˇ Blue, on Al Foil 100 (38) 0.78
ˇˇ Clear, on Al Foil (2 coats) 200 (93) .08-.09
ˇˇ Clear, on Bright Cu 200 (93) 0.66
ˇˇ Clear, on Tarnished Cu 200 (93) 0.64
ˇˇ Red, on Al Foil (2 coats) 100 (38) .60-.74
ˇˇ White 200 (93) 0.95
ˇˇ White, on Al Foil (2 coats) 100 (38) .69-.88
ˇˇ Yellow, on Al Foil (2 coats) 100 (38) .57-.79
Lime Mortar 100-500 (38-260) .90-.92
Limestone 100 (38) 0.95
Marble, White 100 (38) 0.95
ˇˇ Smooth, White 100 (38) 0.56
ˇˇ Polished Grey 100 (38) 0.75
Mica 100 (38) 0.75
Oil on Nickel
ˇˇ 0.001 Film 72 (22) 0.27
ˇˇ 0.002 " 72 (22) 0.46
ˇˇ 0.005 " 72 (22) 0.72
ˇˇ Thick " 72 (22) 0.82
Oil, Linseed
ˇˇ On Al Foil, uncoated 250 (121) 0.09
ˇˇ On Al Foil, 1 coat 250 (121) 0.56
ˇˇ On Al Foil, 2 coats 250 (121) 0.51
ˇˇ On Polished Iron, .001 Film 100 (38) 0.22
ˇˇ On Polished Iron, .002 Film 100 (38) 0.45
ˇˇ On Polished Iron, .004 Film 100 (38) 0.65
ˇˇ On Polished Iron, Thick Film 100 (38) 0.83
Paints
ˇˇ Blue, Cu2O3  75 (24) 0.94
ˇˇ Black, CuO 75 (24) 0.96
ˇˇ Green, Cu2O3 75 (24) 0.92
ˇˇ Red, Fe2O3 75 (24) 0.91
ˇˇ White, Al2O3 75 (24) 0.94
ˇˇ White, Y2O3 75 (24) 0.9
ˇˇ White, ZnO 75 (24) 0.95
ˇˇ White, MgCO3 75 (24)  0.91
ˇˇ White, ZrO2  75 (24) 0.95
ˇˇ White, ThO2  75 (24) 0.9
ˇˇ White, MgO 75 (24) 0.91
ˇˇ White, PbCO3  75 (24) 0.93
ˇˇ Yellow, PbO 75 (24) 0.9
ˇˇ Yellow, PbCrO4 75 (24)  0.93
Paints, Aluminium 100 (38) .27-.67
ˇˇ 10% Al 100 (38) 0.52
ˇˇ 26% Al 100 (38) 0.3
ˇˇ Dow XP-310  200 (93) 0.22
Paints, Bronze    Low   .34-.80
ˇˇ Gum Varnish (2 coats) 70 (21) 0.53
ˇˇ Gum Varnish (3 coats) 70 (21) 0.5
ˇˇ Cellulose Binder (2 coats)  70 (21)  0.34
Paints, Oil
ˇˇ All colours 200 (93)  .92-.96
ˇˇ Black 200 (93) 0.92
ˇˇ Black Gloss  70 (21)  0.9
ˇˇ Camouflage Green 125 (52) 0.85
ˇˇ Flat Black   80 (27) 0.88
ˇˇ Flat White 80 (27) 0.91
ˇˇ Grey-Green  70 (21)  0.95
ˇˇ Green 200 (93) 0.95
ˇˇ Lamp Black 209 (98) 0.96
ˇˇ Red   200 (93) 0.95
ˇˇ White  200 (93) 0.94
Quartz, Rough, Fused 70 (21) 0.93
ˇˇ Glass, 1.98 mm 540 (282)  0.9
ˇˇ Glass, 1.98 mm 1540 (838)  0.41
ˇˇ Glass, 6.88 mm 540 (282) 0.93
ˇˇ Glass, 6.88 mm   1540 (838) 0.47
ˇˇ Opaque 570 (299) 0.92
ˇˇ Opaque  1540 (838) 0.68
Red Lead  212 (100) 0.93
Rubber, Hard   74 (23) 0.94
Rubber, Soft, Grey 76 (24)  0.86
Sand  68 (20) 0.76
Sandstone 100 (38) 0.67
Sandstone, Red 100 (38) .60-.83
Sawdust  68 (20) 0.75
Shale 68 (20) 0.69
Silica,Glazed 1832 (1000) 0.85
Silica, Unglazed  2012 (1100) 0.75
Silicon Carbide 300-1200 (149-649) .83-.96
Silk Cloth 68 (20) 0.78
Slate  100 (38) .67-.80
Snow, Fine Particles 20 (-7) 0.82
Snow, Granular 18 (-8) 0.89
Soil
ˇˇ Surface 100 (38) 0.38
ˇˇ Black Loam 68 (20) 0.66
ˇˇ Plowed Field  68 (20) 0.38
Soot
ˇˇ Acetylene  75 (24) 0.97
ˇˇ Camphor 75 (24) 0.94
ˇˇ Candle 250 (121) 0.95
ˇˇ Coal   68 (20) 0.95
Stonework 100 (38) 0.93
Water 100 (38) 0.67
Waterglass 68 (20) 0.96
Wood  Low .80-.90
Beech Planed 158 (70) 0.94
Oak, Planed 100 (38) 0.91
Spruce, Sanded 100 (38) 0.89

Ems Histogram of NonMetal

Metal

Material(metal) Temp degF (degC) Emissivity
Alloys
ˇˇ 20-Ni, 24-CR, 55-FE, Oxid. 392 (200) 0.9
ˇˇ 20-Ni, 24-CR, 55-FE, Oxid. 932(500) 0.97
ˇˇ 60-Ni, 12-CR, 28-FE, Oxid. 518 (270) 0.89
ˇˇ 60-Ni, 12-CR, 28-FE, Oxid. 1040 (560) 0.82
ˇˇ 80-Ni, 20-CR, Oxidised 212 (100) 0.87
ˇˇ 80-Ni, 20-CR, Oxidised 1112 (600) 0.87
ˇˇ 80-Ni, 20-CR, Oxidised 2372 (1300) 0.89
Aluminium
ˇˇ Unoxidised 77 (25) 0.02
ˇˇ Unoxidised 212 (100) 0.03
ˇˇ Unoxidised 932 (500) 0.06
ˇˇ Oxidised 390 (199) 0.11
ˇˇ Oxidised 1110 (599) 0.19
ˇˇ Oxidised at 599degC(1110degF) 390 (199) 0.11
ˇˇ Oxidised at 599degC(1110degF) 1110 (599) 0.19
ˇˇ Heavily Oxidised 200 (93) 0.2
ˇˇ Heavily Oxidised 940 (504) 0.31
ˇˇ Highly Polished 212 (100) 0.09
ˇˇ Roughly Polished 212 (100) 0.18
ˇˇ Commercial Sheet 212 (100) 0.09
ˇˇ Highly Polished Plate 440 (227) 0.04
ˇˇ Highly Polished Plate 1070 (577) 0.06
ˇˇ Bright Rolled Plate  338 (170)   0.04
ˇˇ Bright Rolled Plate    932 (500)   0.05
ˇˇ Alloy A3003, Oxidised   600 (316) 0.4
ˇˇ Alloy A3003, Oxidised    900 (482)    0.4
ˇˇ Alloy 1100-0  200-800 (93-427)   0.05
ˇˇ Alloy 24ST 75 (24)  0.09
ˇˇ Alloy 24ST, Polished 75 (24)  0.09
ˇˇ Alloy 75ST     75 (24)   0.11
ˇˇ Alloy 75ST, Polished 75 (24)   0.08
Bismuth, Bright 176 (80) 0.34
Bismuth, Unoxidised  77 (25)   0.05
Bismuth, Unoxidised 212 (100)   0.06
Brass
ˇˇ 73% Cu, 27% Zn, Polished 476 (247) 0.03
ˇˇ 73% Cu, 27% Zn, Polished  674 (357) 0.03
ˇˇ 62% Cu, 37% Zn, Polished  494 (257) 0.03
ˇˇ 62% Cu, 37% Zn, Polished  710 (377) 0.04
ˇˇ 83% Cu, 17% Zn, Polished 530 (277) 0.03
ˇˇ Matte    68 (20)  0.07
ˇˇ Burnished to Brown Colour 68 (20) 0.4
ˇˇ Cu-Zn, Brass Oxidised 392 (200)   0.61
ˇˇ Cu-Zn, Brass Oxidised 752 (400) 0.6
ˇˇ Cu-Zn, Brass Oxidised  1112 (600) 0.61
ˇˇ Unoxidised  77 (25)  0.04
ˇˇ Unoxidised 212 (100)  0.04
ˇˇ Cadmium    77 (25) 0.02
Carbon
ˇˇ Lampblack   77 (25)  0.95
ˇˇ Unoxidised 77 (25) 0.81
ˇˇ Unoxidised     212 (100)  0.81
ˇˇ Unoxidised     932 (500)   0.79
ˇˇ Candle Soot     250 (121)    0.95
ˇˇ Filament            500 (260)  0.95
ˇˇ Graphitized    212 (100)  0.76
ˇˇ Graphitized  572 (300)    0.75
ˇˇ Graphitized 932 (500)      0.71
Chromium 100 (38) 0.08
Chromium 1000 (538) 0.26
Chromium, Polished  302 (150) 0.06
Cobalt, Unoxidised 932 (500)  0.13
Cobalt, Unoxidised 1832 (1000) 0.23
Columbium, Unoxidised 1500 (816)    0.19
Columbium, Unoxidised 2000 (1093) 0.24
Copper
ˇˇ Cuprous Oxide 100 (38) 0.87
ˇˇ Cuprous Oxide 500 (260) 0.83
ˇˇ Cuprous Oxide 1000 (538) 0.77
ˇˇ Black, Oxidised  100 (38) 0.78
ˇˇ Etched 100 (38) 0.09
ˇˇ Matte  100 (38) 0.22
ˇˇ Roughly Polished 100 (38) 0.07
ˇˇ Polished   100 (38)  0.03
ˇˇ Highly Polished  100 (38)   0.02
ˇˇ Rolled    100 (38)  0.64
ˇˇ Rough        100 (38)  0.74
ˇˇ Molten    1000 (538)    0.15
ˇˇ Molten  1970 (1077)  0.16
ˇˇ Molten  2230 (1221)  0.13
ˇˇ Nickel Plated  100-500 (38-260) 0.37
Dow Metal 0.4-600 (-18-316) 0.15
Gold
ˇˇ Enamel 212 (100) 0.37
ˇˇ Plate (.0001) ˇˇ ˇˇ
ˇˇ Plate on .0005 Silver 200-750 (93-399) .11-.14
ˇˇ Plate on .0005 Nickel 200-750 (93-399)  .07-.09
ˇˇ Polished  100-500 (38-260) 0.02
ˇˇ Polished 1000-2000 (538-1093) 0.03
Haynes Alloy C,
ˇˇ Oxidised 600-2000 (316-1093)  .90-.96
Haynes Alloy 25,
ˇˇ Oxidised  600-2000 (316-1093) .86-.89
Haynes Alloy X,
ˇˇ Oxidised 600-2000 (316-1093) .85-.88
Inconel Sheet  1000 (538) 0.28
Inconel Sheet 1200 (649) 0.42
Inconel Sheet 1400 (760) 0.58
Inconel X, Polished  75 (24) 0.19
Inconel B, Polished 75 (24) 0.21
Iron
ˇˇ Oxidised 212 (100)   0.74
ˇˇ Oxidised  930 (499)  0.84
ˇˇ Oxidised  2190 (1199) 0.89
ˇˇ Unoxidised   212 (100) 0.05
ˇˇ Red Rust 77 (25) 0.7
ˇˇ Rusted    77 (25)    0.65
ˇˇ Liquid  2760-3220 (1516-1771) .42-.45
Cast Iron
ˇˇ Oxidised  390 (199)  0.64
ˇˇ Oxidised 1110 (599) 0.78
ˇˇ Unoxidised  212 (100) 0.21
ˇˇ Strong Oxidation 40 (104)  0.95
ˇˇ Strong Oxidation     482 (250) 0.95
ˇˇ Liquid  2795 (1535) 0.29
Wrought Iron
ˇˇ Dull  77 (25) 0.94
ˇˇ Dull     660 (349) 0.94
ˇˇ Smooth  100 (38) 0.35
ˇˇ Polished   100 (38) 0.28
Lead
ˇˇ Polished    100-500 (38-260)  .06-.08
ˇˇ Rough    100 (38) 0.43
ˇˇ Oxidised  100 (38) 0.43
ˇˇ Oxidised at 1100 100 (38) 0.63
ˇˇ Gray Oxidised 100 (38) 0.28
Magnesium   100-500 (38-260)  .07-.13
Magnesium Oxide 1880-3140 (1027-1727) .16-.20
Mercury   32 (0)  0.09
Mercury  77 (25)  0.1
Mercury  100 (38) 0.1
Mercury  212 (100) 0.12
Molybdenum 100 (38) 0.06
Molybdenum 500 (260) 0.08
Molybdenum 1000 (538) 0.11
Molybdenum 2000 (1093) 0.18
Molybdenum Oxidised at 1000degF 600 (316) 0.8
Molybdenum Oxidised at 1000degF 700 (371) 0.84
Molybdenum Oxidised at 1000degF 800 (427) 0.84
Molybdenum Oxidised at 1000degF 900 (482) 0.83
Molybdenum Oxidised at 1000degF 1000 (538) 0.82
Monel, Ni-Cu 392 (200) 0.41
Monel, Ni-Cu  752 (400) 0.44
Monel, Ni-Cu  1112 (600)  0.46
Monel, Ni-Cu Oxidised  68 (20) 0.43
Monel, Ni-Cu Oxid. at 1110degF 1110 (599)  0.46
Nickel
ˇˇ Polished 100 (38) 0.05
ˇˇ Oxidised  100-500 (38-260) .31-.46
ˇˇ Unoxidised 77 (25) 0.05
ˇˇ Unoxidised 212 (100) 0.06
ˇˇ Unoxidised  932 (500) 0.12
ˇˇ Unoxidised 1832 (1000) 0.19
ˇˇ Electrolytic 100 (38) 0.04
ˇˇ Electrolytic 500 (260) 0.06
ˇˇ Electrolytic 1000 (538)  0.1
ˇˇ Electrolytic 2000 (1093) 0.16
Nickel Oxide 1000-2000 (538-1093) .59-.86
Palladium Plate (.00005 on .0005 silver) 200-750 (93-399) .16-.17
Platinum 100 (38) 0.05
Platinum 500 (260) 0.05
Platinum 1000 (538) 0.1
Platinum, Black 100 (38) 0.93
Platinum, Black 500 (260) 0.96
Platinum, Black 2000 (1093) 0.97
Platinum Oxidised at 1100 500 (260) 0.07
Platinum Oxidised at 1100 1000 (538) 0.11
Rhodium Flash (0.0002 on 0.0005 Ni) 200-700 (93-371) .10-.18
Silver
ˇˇ Plate (0.0005 on Ni) 200-700 (93-371) .06-.07
ˇˇ Polished 100 (38) 0.01
ˇˇ Polished 500 (260) 0.02
ˇˇ Polished 1000 (538) 0.03
ˇˇ Polished 2000 (1093) 0.03
Steel
ˇˇ Cold Rolled 200 (93) .75-.85
ˇˇ Ground Sheet 1720-2010 (938-1099) .55-.61
ˇˇ Polished Sheet 100 (38) 0.07
ˇˇ Polished Sheet 500 (260) 0.1
ˇˇ Polished Sheet 1000 (538) 0.14
ˇˇ Mild Steel, Polished  75 (24) 0.1
ˇˇ Mild Steel, Smooth 75 (24) 0.12
ˇˇ Mild Steel,liquid 2910-3270 (1599-1793) 0.28
ˇˇ Steel, Unoxidised 212 (100) 0.08
ˇˇ Steel, Oxidised 77 (25) 0.8
Steel Alloys
ˇˇ Type 301, Polished 75 (24) 0.27
ˇˇ Type 301, Polished 450 (232) 0.57
ˇˇ Type 301, Polished 1740 (949) 0.55
ˇˇ Type 303, Oxidised 600-2000 (316-1093) .74-.87
ˇˇ Type 310, Rolled 1500-2100 (816-1149) .56-.81
ˇˇ Type 316, Polished 75 (24) 0.28
ˇˇ Type 316, Polished 450 (232) 0.57
ˇˇ Type 316, Polished 1740 (949) 0.66
ˇˇ Type 321 200-800 (93-427) .27-.32
ˇˇ Type 321 Polished 300-1500 (149-815) .18-.49
ˇˇ Type 321 w/BK Oxide 200-800 (93-427) .66-.76
ˇˇ Type 347, Oxidised 600-2000 (316-1093) .87-.91
ˇˇ Type 350  200-800 (93-427) .18-.27
ˇˇ Type 350 Polished 300-1800 (149-982) .11-.35
ˇˇ Type 446, Polished 300-1500 (149-815) .15-.37
ˇˇ Type 17-7 PH 200-600 (93-316) .44-.51
ˇˇ Type 17-7 PH Polished 300-1500 (149-815) .09-.16
ˇˇ Type C1020,Oxidised 600-2000 (316-1093) .87-.91
ˇˇ Type PH-15-7 MO 300-1200 (149-649)  .07-.19
Stellite, Polished 68 (20) 0.18
Tantalum, Unoxidised 1340 (727) 0.14
Tantalum, Unoxidised 2000 (1093) 0.19
Tantalum, Unoxidised 3600 (1982) 0.26
Tantalum, Unoxidised 5306 (2930) 0.3
Tin, Unoxidised 77 (25) 0.04
Tin, Unoxidised 212 (100) 0.05
Tinned Iron, Bright 76 (24) 0.05
Tinned Iron, Bright 212 (100) 0.08
Titanium
ˇˇ Alloy C110M,Polished 300-1200 (149-649) .08-.19
ˇˇ  Oxidised at 538degC(1000degF) 200-800 (93-427) .51-.61
ˇˇ Alloy Ti-95A,Oxidised at 538degC(1000degF) 200-800 (93-427) .35-.48
ˇˇ Anodized onto SS 200-600 (93-316) .96-.82
Tungsten
ˇˇ Unoxidised 77 (25) 0.02
ˇˇ Unoxidised 212 (100) 0.03
ˇˇ Unoxidised 932 (500) 0.07
ˇˇ Unoxidised 1832 (1000) 0.15
ˇˇ Unoxidised 2732 (1500) 0.23
ˇˇ Unoxidised 3632 (2000) 0.28
ˇˇ Filament (Aged) 100 (38) 0.03
ˇˇ Filament (Aged) 1000 (538) 0.11
ˇˇ Filament (Aged) 5000 (2760) 0.35
Uranium Oxide 1880 (1027) 0.79
Zinc
ˇˇ  Bright, Galvanised 100 (38) 0.23
ˇˇ Commercial 99.1% 500 (260) 0.05
ˇˇ Galvanised 100 (38) 0.28
ˇˇ Oxidised 500-1000 (260-538) 0.11
ˇˇ Polished 100 (38) 0.02
ˇˇ Polished 500 (260) 0.03
ˇˇ Polished 1000 (538) 0.04
ˇˇ Polished 2000 (1093) 0.06

Ems Histogram of Metal

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